You are new to web hosting, and you may be wondering what terms like load balancing, addon domains, or uptime really mean. Hosting can be complicated and involve a lot of jargon. Hosting has its own terminology and abbreviations.
Knowing the meaning of each web hosting terms can help you make a decision easier and give you an idea about what you get with your web hosting package.
There are many things you should know when looking for a hosting company. However, web hosting companies often don’t give detailed explanations of technical terms. We are here to help you learn the most commonly used acronyms, terms and phrases in web hosting. This will allow you to make informed decisions before you commit to long-term hosting plans.
Alphabetically Organized and Most Comprehensive List of Web Hosting Terms Explained
- Auto responder
- Cloud Hosting
- cPanel or Control Panel
- Data Center
- Dedicated Hosting
- Domain Name
- Domain privacy
- Domain Registrar
- Email hosting
- Error Pages
- File Permissions
- FTP and SFTP
- Google Analytics
- Green hosting
- Horizontal Scaling
- HTTP and HTTPS
- HTTP Status Code
- IP Address
- Linux server
- Live Chat Support
- Load Balancing
- Mailing List
- Managed Hosting
- MX record
- Parked Domain
- Payment Gateway
- Reseller hosting
- Shared Hosting
- Site Backup
- SSL and TLS
- SSL Certificate
- Web Hosting
- Windows Server
It is a file that controls high-level configuration of your website. Using .htaccess files is a powerful tool for managing your server, but it can be tricky. Make sure you are familiar with making changes to your server before you start editing .htaccess files. Through .htaccess you can set parameters for a file like setting permissions, blocking some websites or determine if people can link to your pages. htaccess can also be used for improving your website’s functionality and improving SEO.
The distributed server configuration file htaccess is also known as ‘hypertext acces’. These .htaccess files are used to modify the Apache Web Server software configuration to enable/disable other functionality and features.
Although the file is secret, it is located in the public_html folder of your website. There are several ways to access your .htaccess files:
- File management from your hosting account (such as via the cPanel)
- From an FTP client or sFTP client
Although .htaccess files are a powerful tool to manage your server, it can be difficult. Before you begin editing .htaccess files, make sure you know how to modify your server. You can use .htaccess to set parameters for files like blocking certain websites, blocking permissions or allowing people to link to your pages. You can use .htaccess to improve your website’s functionality or increase SEO.
02. Auto responder
An email auto responder is a program that responds to e-mails sent to it automatically. Multiple messages can be created to go out at once. Auto responders allow you to automate your email campaigns and maintain one-to-one communication between recipients.
These emails can be used to notify people when you are away on vacation or for situations where you are unable reply to emails. Your web site can be configured to respond automatically to e-mails to a specific email address.
Bandwidth is something you will hear often when it comes to web hosting. Bandwidth is often expressed in terms of the data transfer per second. This can be expressed in kilobits or gigabits per sec. The web hosting bandwidth refers to the data a website can transmit to its visitors in a given time period. This includes actions such as browsing, file downloading and file uploading.
Gigabytes (GB) are the most common unit of bandwidth. However, some web hosting companies offer unlimited bandwidth. Many visitors won’t find your website if you don’t provide enough bandwidth. This means that you will lose a lot valuable traffic. Your site will be able to support rich content and traffic if you have more bandwidth.
Hosting providers often offer unlimited or unmetered bandwidth with all packages. This means that you don’t need to choose between metered bandwidth and unmetered bandwidth. Some hosting plans have a limit on the amount of bandwidth that you can use each day or every month. This is something you need to be aware of when you buy your hosting plan.
You can choose from different levels of caching, e.g. Server Caching, CDN Caching and Browser Caching. Depending on the device and the method used, a cache can be cleared in a variety of ways. Clearing a browser cache will cause every page that loads to load to behave as if it were the first time that the user has seen the page.
05. CDN (Content Delivery Network)
A content delivery network (or content distribution network) is a geographically distributed network of servers that work together to deliver Internet content quickly to end-users, specifically static files such as images, CSS, HTML, and JS files.
It is crucial to select servers that are close to your target market in order to ensure your website loads quickly for them. It’s difficult to find a server close to all your visitors if you have a global market. CDN is the solution. CDN allows users to view the same high quality content from around the globe without having to wait for it to load.
06. Cloud Hosting
Cloud hosting allows websites and applications to be accessible via cloud resources. Your site is not hosted on a single server. Instead, it is hosted on several servers that are interconnected. They are located in a large geographical area. This allows for greater flexibility and scalability.
Cloud hosting allows you to scale your resources in real-time according to the needs of your website. Cloud hosting is an excellent choice if a website is critical to the company’s survival. Cloud is flexible and cost-effective if you’re building large applications, websites, or services. You can scale up or down as you need, and will only be charged for what you use.
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07. CMS (Content Management System)
CMS, or Content Management System, is computer software that manages the creation and modification digital content. Multiple contributors can create, edit, and publish content. Prestashop, Joomla, Drupal and Magento are the main CMS.
Content management systems can store all your web content, facilitate collaboration, help you create dynamic web pages, make it easy to update your website, and provide handy plugins and tools that will make your site more secure and efficient while saving you time and money.
WordPress is the most widely used content management system. WordPress powers over 38% of all websites. You can create websites using a simple interface. There are more than 58,000 plugins available and over 4000 themes for free.
08. cPanel or Control Panel
A cPanel, also known as Web Hosting Control Panel, is a web-based graphical interface (GUI), that allows users to manage their web servers and other hosted services. cPanel lets you publish websites, manage domains and organize web files. It also allows you to create email accounts.
Many web hosting companies offer cPanel as part of their hosting packages. cPanel offers two interfaces: a user interface, cPanel, and a server management interface, Web Host Manager (WHM). cPanel is well-known in the hosting industry.
A Web Server has one or more CPUs (central processing units). This is similar to your home computer. These CPUs are the brains of the computer and handle information requests as well as execute programs. The more data it can store and process before affecting your site’s performance, the better shared hosting.
Multiple requests can overload CPUs. If your site experiences a lot of traffic or high volumes of script requests, this can lead to a slowdown in performance. We recommend that you choose a hosting plan with a higher CPU, such as a dedicated server or virtual private server, if your site is large or highly trafficked.
10. Data Center
A data center is an area used to house computer systems and their associated components. The web host usually maintains a data center for the purpose of handling data, including emails and web servers. The data center of today will likely have thousands upon thousands of servers that are small and powerful, all working 24/7.
A data center design includes routers, switches and firewalls. Storage systems, servers, and controllers are also key components. Data Center infrastructure has evolved from physical servers on premises to virtual networks that support workloads and applications across multiple infrastructure pools and into multicloud environments.
11. DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service)
A distributed denial of service (DDoS) is an attack that attempts to interrupt the normal traffic of a target server, service, or network. It overwhelms the target’s infrastructure or causes a flood of Internet traffic.
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS), attacks involve multiple online devices connected together, collectively called a botnet. These devices are used to overwhelm a target site with fake traffic. DDoS attacks are usually designed to render your website and servers unusable to legitimate users.
DDoS attacks may occur in short bursts of attack or repeatedly. However, the damage to a website and business can last days, weeks, or even months while the company tries to recover. Although the number of DDoS attacks has decreased over time, they still pose a serious threat.
12. Dedicated Hosting
A managed hosting service, also known as dedicated hosting is an Internet hosting type in which the client leases a server that is not shared with others. The dedicated servers are isolated from each other and the customer has complete access to configure their server in any way they like, so that they can meet their specific requirements.
Dedicated hosting plans can be a great option for websites or organizations with a lot of traffic. This is a powerful server plan that can be used in conjunction with cloud hosting. It may be time for your website to be moved to a dedicated server if it is having trouble keeping up with increased traffic.
A dedicated hosting service provides high performance, security and email stability. It also allows you to control your website. Because dedicated hosting is expensive, most websites using it are large traffic sites.
13. DNS (Domain Name System)
The DNS, also known as Domain Name System, is a hierarchical, decentralized naming system that connects computers to the Internet, private networks, and other resources. It is basically the Internet’s phonebook. DNS’s main function is to translate domain names into IP addresses that computers can understand.
Your computer first requests a recursive DNS service to locate the IP address associated to a domain name. This is also called a recursive resolver. Recursive resolvers are servers that are usually managed by ISPs or third-party providers. They know which DNS servers they need to contact to resolve the site name and IP address.
A “DNS record” is a combination of a domain name and an IP address.
14. Domain Name
A domain is a simple-to-remember URL that allows you to access websites online, such as YouTube.com. This is the URL of your website, which people enter in the browser URL bar to access your site. You can use any combination of numbers and letters to create a domain name. It can also be combined with other domain extensions such as.com or.net.
The Internet is a huge network of computers that are connected through a network of cables. Every computer can communicate with others on the network. Each computer is assigned an IP Address to identify it. An IP address is a sequence of numbers that uniquely identify a computer on the internet. An example of an IP address is 22.214.171.124
It is difficult to remember an IP address such as this. Imagine what it would be like if you had these numbers to access your favorite websites. This is why domain names were created.
If you’re going to visit a website you don’t have to enter an IP address. Instead, type a simple domain name into your browser’s address field to visit it. Google.com is an example.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) is responsible for domain name registrations. ICANN determines which domain extensions are available and maintains a central database of domain names that point to them.
Before you can use the domain name, it must be registered. Any trusted domain registrar can be purchased. Our most trusted Name.com domain name registrar is accredited by ICANN.
15. Domain Privacy
Domain Privacy also known as Whois privacy is an optional add-on provided by your Domain Registrar. At the time of domain registration you must give the domain registrar basic contact information. This includes your name, address, phone number and email address. This information is entered into the public Whois database as a record to confirm that you are the domain’s owner.
All information in WHOIS is available online to the public. All your data are available to anyone without Domain Privacy Protection. You can add privacy protection to your domain immediately after you purchase it.
Domain privacy is an optional feature that can be added to your domain name. It is essential for stopping abuse of email addresses or other publicly accessible WHOIS data.
A number of domain name registrars offer domain privacy as a paid feature, but some provide it free of charge. Domain Privacy allows to retain full ownership and control of your domain name. Your personal information will not be made public. Domain Privacy protects you from identity theft, spam and the sale of personal information.
16. Domain Registrar
Domain name registrars offer domain name registrations to the public. It manages the registration of domain names and the assignment of IP addresses to those domain names.
When a customer buys a domain name, the domain name registrar manages the updating of the registry. They keep track of all domain names available and provide customers with an intuitive search engine to help them find the best options.
Your information is sent to the registry by the registrar. Registry is a company that sells domains for one or more top level domains such as.com or .org. The registry stores information about your domain in its own database, while some information is stored in the public WHOIS database.
Drupal is an open-source, free content management system (CMS), with a large and supportive community. Millions of people and organisations around the world use Drupal to create and maintain their websites. It’s best for websites of medium-sized to large size, with an eye on future scalability.
Drupal is both a web content management tool and a platform that can be customized to suit your content management strategy. Drupal is used by technology and business leaders to build real-world enterprise solutions that enable web innovation.
Drupal offers an administrative interface that non-technical admins can use to create, publish, and manage websites. Drupal’s unique advantage is its ability to create the administrative interface you want and what it can do.
E-commerce allows you to sell, buy, and trade goods, products, and services online. E-commerce can be used to purchase almost anything. It has become a major player in the market and is the fastest growing industry in the world.
It is often thought of as the sale or purchase of physical products online. But E-commerce can also include the purchase and sale of digital goods. It is when a business sells on the internet.
There are four major categories of electronic commerce:
- Business to Business (B2B)
- Business to Consumer (B2C)
- Consumer to Consumer (C2C)
- Consumer to Business (C2B)
19. Email Hosting
Email hosting is an online premium service that allows users to create a unique email address and send and receive emails from it. You can set up an email address that includes your domain name, which is not possible with free email service providers like Gmail, Yahoo, and others. If you have a website at www.example.com your email address could be [email protected]
In addition, Email hosting allows you to not only get an email server, but also adds additional services to help your business grow. These features include secure authentication, rerouting, replication, management of user domains, and other useful options.
Usually, web hosting and email hosting are included in a web hosting package. Some businesses prefer professional email hosting services to ensure their email communications are secure and organized. This will help you establish credibility and trust for your business. Professional email service providers offer email encryption to ensure that emails are secure and can be accessed only by authorized parties.
You should choose an email service provider who understands your needs and offers a solution that will allow you to communicate, grow, and succeed.
20. Error Pages
Error pages are the result of an HTTP status code, which is server response in 3 digit code. When we type a website address or URL in our web browser address bar and hit enter, behind the scene an HTTP request is sent to the server or web server. The server interprets that HTTP request and sends back relevant information back to web browser, which we call a response. Some times there is some error in our HTTP request or Server is not able to send back the required information, at that time server sends some error codes back as a response. Server may also generate a page with information about the error and the status code, is called an error page.
Different error codes can be used depending on the nature of an error. These are the most common error codes:
- 400 Bad Request
- 403 Forbidden
- 404 Not Found
- 406 Not Acceptable
- 500 Internal Server Error
- 503 Service Unavailable
For complete list of status codes see MDN Web Docs.
21. File Permissions
File permissions are an important security feature for your server. You can control who is allowed to read, write, or execute files. It would be difficult to host multiple user websites and data without them. You can set up system settings to control who can access files and what they can do. You can give different levels of permission to your users when you upload files to a web server.
Access permissions are granted to files and directories that reside on a web server. These permissions tell the server how to handle access requests. There are typically four types of file access permissions: Read, Write, Execute, and Delete.
To send files to a web browser, a web server must have access to your site’s files. Your files must have the appropriate file permissions to allow your site to function properly.
File permissions that are incorrect can lead to errors, or worse, allow unauthorised users to hack your website. Unauthorized users can access your files and alter them further to make a site more vulnerable. You should only modify file permissions when absolutely necessary. Your website could be at risk if you allow more users to access your files than necessary.
A firewall is a digital barrier that blocks unwanted users from accessing a web server or host computer. Firewalls are usually comprise of both Hardware devices and Software programs. A good Web host should have installed both software and hardware firewalls to provide maximum level of security and privacy.
Firewalls protect your network and computer from malicious or unneeded network traffic. Firewalls can also stop malicious software accessing computers or networks via the internet.
A web application firewall is a firewall that blocks, filters, and monitors data packets traveling to and from websites or web applications. A WAF is available in three types: network-based, cloud-based, or host-based. It’s often placed behind one or more websites and applications through a reverse proxy.
23. FTP and SFTP
These are file transfer protocols (a set of rules) that are used to transfer files between computers over the internet.
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. FTP uses the client/server model and allows you to transfer files directly between your FTP client (or any other FTP client) and your web server. FTP is a set or rules that computers use to transfer files over the internet. This can be used by businesses to transfer files between computers. Websites may also use FTP to upload and download files from websites’ servers.
FTP uses two channels to transmit information: a command channel as well as a data channel. Both of these channels by default are not encrypted, so malicious actors may be able to access the information you’re transmitting.
SFTP (or Secure file transfer protocol) is an advanced and secured version of FTP. It allows you to transfer files but also adds security. SFTP uses SSH encryption (or secure shell encryption) to protect data while it’s being transferred. This ensures that data isn’t exposed to the Internet outside parties when it’s sent to another computer.
SFTP provides the same basic functions as FTP but uses tunneling and files can be transferred over SSH. This is in contrast to FTP’s direct transfer and client-server approach. SFTP uses a single channel, and you can authenticate your client with either a username/password of SSH cryptographic keys.
SFTP is the best choice for secure data transfers. FTP and SFTP have two key differences. SFTP uses a secure channel for file transfers, while FTP does not. SFTP ensures that your connection is secure and all data between your FTP client to your web server are encrypted. This means that malicious actors cannot intercept your data and can’t access it from the middle.
24. Google Analytics
Google Analytics (offered by Google) is a web analysis service that provides basic tools and statistics for search engine optimization (SEO), and marketing purposes. It tracks website activity, such as session duration, page views, bounce rate, and pages per session. It is currently a part of the Google Marketing Platform, Google launched this service on November 5, 2005.
You will need to create an account with Google Analytics and add a tracking number to your website in order to use Google Analytics. Google Analytics will place a cookie when a visitor visits your site. Cookies are small files that store information about the user’s activity. After Google Analytics has collected sufficient data from your website, it will populate your Google Analytics dashboard with the data.
25. Green Hosting
Hosting providers use a lot of energy to power their servers and data centres for 24/7 uptime. Additional facilities like cooling controls or enhanced security systems also require large amounts of electricity. This high energy consumption has a negative effect on the environment. Hosting that is eco-friendly or green hosting, uses green technologies to lower the environmental impact.
When wind power or another renewable energy is used to replace traditional power, green tags are created. This is a move away from dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity. Clean renewable energy is more friendly for the environment than burning fossil fuels to produce electricity. It also reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
26. Horizontal Scaling
Horizontal scaling refers to adding more resources to your system by connecting more machines to the network and sharing the processing load across multiple devices. This architecture allows for greater availability and expansion because Managed Servers can be distributed over multiple machines and geographical locations.
HyperText Markup Language (or HTML) is the standard markup language that defines how a Web site should be formatted and displayed by a web browser. Every Web page has HTML tags embedded within the text. These HTML tags define page layout, fonts, and hypertext links. HTML documents are files ending with a.html extension. A web browser interprets the HTML file and renders it for internet users.
28. HTTP and HTTPS
Communication between web clients, web servers is the heart of the World Wide Web. The HTTP Requests and Responses are used to communicate between web servers and client computers. Every HTTP request sent across the Internet contains a variety of encoded data that can carry different types of information. An HTTP request typically contains:
- Type of HTTP version
- A URL
- An HTTP method
- HTTP request headers
- Optional HTTP body
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), is a protocol for encoding or transporting information between a client (such a web browser) a server (such as a web page). HTTP is the main protocol used to transmit information over the Internet.
POST and GET are the most commonly-used HTTP methods. These are the operations that create, read/update, delete (or CRUD), respectively.
HTTPS or Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure is a secured version of HTTP. It uses encryption protocols to encrypt communications. Although it is now known as Transport Layer Security (TLS), it was previously called Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). This protocol uses an asymmetric key infrastructure to secure communications.
HTTPS has a number of benefits over HTTP. It increases trust and security. It helps users avoid man-in the-middle attacks (MitM) that could be launched from insecure or compromised networks. These techniques can be used by hackers to steal sensitive information from your customers.
29. HTTP Status Code
An HTTP status is a response from a server to a browser’s request. When you visit a site, your browser sends an HTTP request to its server. The server then responds to that request with a three-digit number: the HTTP Status code.
It is a 3-digits code. Each three-digit status code’s first digit begins with one of five numbers 1 through 5. You might see this as 1xx, 5xx, or both to indicate code ranges. The first digit in the status code determines the class of response. The last two digits don’t have any categorization or classifying role.
Common HTTP status codes classes
- 1xx – Informational Responses: The server is currently processing the request.
- 2xx – Success! The browser received the expected response from the server after the request was completed successfully.
- 3xx – Redirection: You were redirected to another place. Although the request was accepted, there is a redirect.
- 4xx – Client errors: Page not found. Page or site not found. (The request was received, but the page wasn’t valid. This is an error from the website’s side of conversation. It often occurs when a page isn’t on the site.
- 5xx – Server errors: Failure. The client submitted a valid request, but the server did not complete it.
American Nonprofit, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers was founded in 1998. It is responsible for maintaining the central repository of IP addresses and coordinates the supply. It manages the root servers and domain name system. ICANN currently has over 180 million domains and 4 billion network addresses in 240 countries.
It can be described as the postal system for the internet. It is the governing body responsible for standardizing and maintaining the global naming system.
ICANN is managed and controlled by a Board of Directors. It includes representatives of Supporting Organizations and sub-groups that concentrate on specific sections of ICANN policies. Independent representatives of public interest are chosen through a nomination committee, in which all constituencies of ICANN can be represented.
There are currently three Supporting Organizations:
- The Generic Names Supporting Organization, (GNSO), focuses on policy-making on generic top-level domains (gTLDs).
- Country Code Names Supporting Organization, (CCNSO), is responsible for policy concerning country code top-level domains.
- The Address Supporting Organization (ASO), which is responsible for policy regarding IP addresses
Internet Message Access Protocol, or IMAP, means all your email is stored on the servers of your Internet Service Provider. IMAP allows you to run two email programs at the same time. Both will have access to the same set of messages and folders.
IMAP makes it possible to access your email from anywhere you are and on any device. You don’t download or store an email message via IMAP; you simply read it from the email service. You can access your email on any device, any time, from anywhere: using your phone, computer or even from a friend’s computer.
IMAP does not automatically download attachments. It only downloads a message if you click on it. This makes it possible to access your messages more quickly than using POP.
32. IP Address
When it comes to communication between different computers on the internet, or a local network, it needs the ability to distinguish between computers, routers, websites, and other devices. IP addresses enable you to differentiate between each node on the network.
All devices connected to an internet connection must have a unique address. This means that billions of IP addresses are required.
An IP address is a unique identifier that uniquely identifies each device on the internet and local networks. IP stands as “Internet Protocol”, which refers to the set of rules that govern the format and transmission of data via the internet. A typical IP Address will look like 192.168.1.1. Each dot separated numbers can range from 0 up to 255. The IP addressing range includes 0.0.0.0 up to 255.255.255.
IP addresses are not randomly assigned. They are mathematically calculated and assigned by IANA (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), a division. ICANN was established in the United States as a non profit organization in 1998. Its purpose is to ensure the security and accessibility of the internet for all. Anyone who registers a domain online must go through a domain registrar. The domain registrar will pay a small fee at ICANN for the domain.
There are two IP versions. IPv4 which is the older version. Whereas IPv6 is the newer version. IPv4 has over 4 billion IP addresses. But the latest version IPv6 can offer trillions of IP addresses to meet the demands of all internet users.
A company that offers Internet access to customers is known as an Internet service provider (ISP). It is commonly referred to simply as “the provider”. ISPs make use of multiple technologies for data transmission, including DSL, cable modem, wireless and high-speed 4G/5G internet connections. In addition to having a direct line to internet, the company may also own web servers.
ISPs can connect to multiple ISPs over fiber optics cable. It is buried beneath the soil and laid on ocean floor. They are connected to each other via network access points, public networks facilities on an Internet backbone. Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP, is a protocol that ISPs use on their routers. BGP allows you to choose which path is used to find the Internet server that you need.
Internet Service Providers can track everything you do online. They can see everything you do online, including which websites you visit and how long you spend there, what content you view, your device used, and where you live etc.
Joomla, also known as “Joomla!”, is an open-source CMS (content management system) that allows you to publish web content. Joomla! has been around for many years. It is one the most widely used website software’s due to its global community, which includes volunteers and developers. They ensure that the platform is user-friendly and extensible, accessible, responsive, search engine optimized and accessible in multiple languages.
Joomla is completely open source and free for anyone who wants to make dynamic, functional websites for many purposes. Joomla is used by some the most well-known Web brands like MTV, iHop, Harvard. Joomla! allows users from all walks of life to create websites and online applications.
Joomla is written in PHP. It uses MySQL database to store data and uses object-oriented programming techniques. You can set it up through your web hosting control panel with just one click. There are many Joomla hosting options available, including hundreds of articles on the internet that will help you through the process of installing and Setting up a Joomla application.
36. Linux Server
A Linux server is built using the Linux open-source OS. It allows businesses to host content, apps and services at a very low cost. Linux Servers run faster on both physical and virtual servers, as they don’t require GUI (Graphical User Interface). Linux is open source, so it’s easy to find resources and support for your project.
Linux, an operating system that was initially developed for personal computers based upon the Intel x86 architecture. It is now available on more platforms than any other operating system. Linux is the most popular general-purpose operating system due to its Android OS, which is based on the Linux kernel.
Linux is also the top operating system for servers and “big-iron” systems, such as mainframe computers and the only OS available on TOP500 supercomputers.
37. Live Chat Support
Customers can chat via live chat to communicate with their support team using text messages. Customers can easily send their questions via live chat to the company’s website. Sometimes, an AI bot can also reply. Visitors can interact with support persons directly via a chat box on a website, rather than calling a representative.
To assist with understanding the problem better, customers can send links and images to support personnel. Using live chat support has many benefits, along with it is a preferred option for many customers. Furthermore, it has the highest customer service level of any support channel.
38. Load Balancing
Load balance is the process by which workloads are distributed in a distributed system such as cloud computing. It ensures that no computing machines are under-loaded, overloaded, or idle. Load-balancing attempts to increase different constraints parameters, such as execution time, response time and system stability. Also, load balancing helps to improve service availability and reduce downtimes.
Modern high-traffic websites need to be able to handle hundreds of thousands of simultaneous requests from clients or customers and return the correct data, images, and text in a reliable and fast manner. Modern computing best practice dictates that more servers are needed to scale up these high volumes cost-effectively. A load balancer acts in the role of “traffic cop”, routing client requests across all servers that can fulfill those requests. This optimizes speed and capacity utilization. The load balancer redirects traffic if one server goes down to the other online servers. The load balancer will automatically start sending requests to a server added to the group.
39. Mailing List
Mailing List is an electronic list of email addresses that allow you to send the same email to many people. Mailing lists allow you to send emails to multiple recipients at the same time. You can send emails to your mailing list subscribers with plain text or colorful newsletters, promotions and images embedded in links and attachments.
Website malware refers to software that is maliciously designed to harm a website or web server. A website can be infected with malware after a successful cross-site scripting (XSS), brute force attack, or SQL injection attack. A vulnerability in a theme, plugin, content management system or CMS could also allow it to be added to your site.
Website malware can cause harm to the site and its users in many ways. These depend on what motivates hackers. These reasons include financial gain, activism (known as “hacktivism”), or building a reputation for being a bad actor.
Website malware includes many features that enable attackers gain unauthorized access to compromised environments. Common types of website malware include credit cards theft, injected junk content, malicious reroutes and even website defacements.
41. Managed Hosting
Managed hosting, also known as dedicated hosting, is an Internet hosting option in which the client leases a server that is not shared with others. Managed hosting is where the web hosting company takes care of all aspects of server management, including system software and hardware. As it is expensive to employ a full time webmaster to maintain websites, managed hosting can be a good option for small to medium sized companies. Management of a business website to ensure maximum uptime is a must nowadays.
The best thing about managed hosting is the technical support service provided by the hosting company. If your website is down or compromised, it can cause significant damage and even loss of sales. You won’t need to worry about routine server maintenance. Managed web hosting is an option if you require a mission critical server but don’t have enough staff or expertise to manage it.
42. MX Record
Mail Exchange or MX records are DNS records required for successful email delivery. An MX records is used to determin which mail servers can accept mail from your domain and to where mail should be directed. You won’t get email if your MX Records aren’t pointed at the right location.
MX records have two parts: priority and domain name. e.g.
- Priority is indicated by the ‘0’.
- A higher priority is indicated by a lower number.
- The mail server it connects to is mail.hosting-guide.com. It will vary depending on which company hosts your email.
- In order of priority, outgoing email servers connect with the MX servers.
- If more than one MX Record is used and they have the same priority, it will pick one randomly. This effectively balances the connections.
An online tool, such as mxtoolbox.com, can help you check DNS MX records.
MySQL is the most widely used database system for PHP. It’s a relational database management system that is built on SQL – Structured Query Language. It can be used for many purposes including data warehousing and e-commerce. It is one the most well-known technologies in today’s big data ecosystem.
MySQL databases store data in tables. A table is a collection that contains related data and is made up of columns as well as rows.
MySQL is open-source and can be used as a server. Multiple users can manage and create multiple databases. It is an essential component of the LAMP stack, open-source web application software which is used to build websites. LAMP stands to Linux, Apache MySQL and PHP. Because it is open-source and integrates seamlessly with WordPress, most WordPress installations use LAMP stack.
44. Parked Domain
A parked domain refers to a domain name that has been registered but is not connected to a website or email hosting. It is a domain name purchased but not being used. It is instead “parked” for future use.
The main reason to park a domain name is to reserve it. To let the world know about their future projects, some people set up ‘Coming Soon” pages on parked domains. You can also park domains to save domain names that you might later sell.
You can also protect your brand and name with domain parking. All trademarks and variations of your business name can be registered. To prevent cybersquatting, you can use the domain you choose as the main address for your website, the rest of the domains you can park.
45. Payment Gateway
Payment Gateway enables customers to send payment information to acquirer, who then transfers payment acceptance or decline to the customer. It’s a tool that validates customer credit card information and makes sure you get paid. Payment gateways connect merchants with payment processors and merchant accounts providers, allowing them to accept credit card payments.
Gateways, which are usually charged an additional fee, allow merchants to accept credit card payments online via an ecommerce site or in person using a Credit Card Terminal. Banks can provide a payment gateway service directly, or they can authorize a payment service provider.
PHP (Hypertext Processor) is an open-source general-purpose scripting language. It is well-suited for web development. You can embed PHP into HTML to create dynamic and interactive websites. It was one of the first server-side languages to be embedded in HTML. This makes it easy to add functionality to web pages and not have to call external files for data.
PHP is responsible for extracting specific information from the database and assembling it into an HTML page. PHP code is found in files that end with the .php extension.
PHP scripts run much faster than scripts written using other languages, such as JSP or ASP. PHP is able to use its own memory. As such, the server workload and loading times are automatically decreased. This leads to faster processing speeds and better performance.
phpMyAdmin is a PHP software tool that allows you to administer MySQL on the Web. phpMyAdmin supports a wide variety of MySQL operations. The user interface allows you to perform commonly used operations, such as managing databases, tables and columns, relationships, indexes and users, permissions, etc. You can also directly execute any SQL statement.
This is the most used application for MySQL database management. This software allows us to create, modify, drop, alter and delete MySQL database tables. It also allows us to import and export them.
phpMyAdmin can be used to browse the database and manage user privileges, as well as execute SQL queries. However, it does not provide a complete SQL administration tool.
phpMyAdmin is a free and open-source project that can be downloaded from GitHub. MySQL database software is free and open-source since its creation.
A plugin (also known as add-on, extension) is a software that adds functionality to a web browser. A plugin can be used to allow a browser to display content that it wasn’t originally intended to display. Plugins are used extensively in digital audio, video and Web browsing. They allow programmers to update a host program while the user remains within the program’s environment.
WordPress plugins, for example, are written in PHP programming language and seamlessly integrate with WordPress. WordPress plugins make it easy to add additional features to your website.
POP or Post Office Protocol is the most widely used message request protocol on the Internet. It allows messages to be transferred from an email server to an email client. The e mail client can request new messages from the server and the server will “pop” any new messages to the client.
POP works by downloading all your messages from your email service provider. Once the messages are downloaded to your Personal Computer they are removed from the email server. This means that the email can only be accessed from the same computer after it has been downloaded. You won’t have access to your email if you attempt to access it from another device.
Sent mail is kept locally on your personal computer and not on an email server. Many Internet Service Providers (ISPs), offer email accounts that use POP.
A computer’s random access memory (RAM), is its short-term memory. It handles all active tasks and applications. The most critical component in determining the performance of your computer is its random access memory (RAM). RAM allows applications to access and store data on a temporary basis. RAM stores information that your computer is currently using to make it easy to access quickly.
RAM stores all data currently being used, including the website you are looking at and the movements of your mouse to move from one side to the next. There are many processes involved in any task you perform on your computer. Your RAM is behind everything you do on your computer. It’s easier and faster to complete these tasks if you have the data stored in RAM on your computer, which is easily accessible.
51. Reseller Hosting
Reseller hosting allows a Web host provider to allow some or all of its Web hosting services to be purchased by third-party organizations or individuals. Reseller hosting allows an organization to act like a Web host provider without having to create, manage and maintain a Web server infrastructure.
Resellers can be perceived by end customers as web hosting companies. You would actually be “reselling” services from an established web host. You would typically purchase a reseller hosting package, then offer hosting to customers who use these resources. You can charge your customers whatever fees you wish, making this a great way to make a profit. Each customer gets their very own Control Panel so that they can fully manage their account. Your customers will ultimately think that it is your server and you are providing the services.
SEO stands for search engine optimization. It is a collection of practices that improve the visibility and position of web pages in organic searches. It is the process of optimizing your website to make it more visible to people searching for products and services that are related to your business on Google, Bing, or other search engines.
To make it more easy to understand, SEO is simply taking some online content and optimizing it so that search engines such as Google display it higher up on the page when someone searches. It is an essential part of digital marketing.
A server is a software or computer system that offers resources, data, programs, and services to other computers (clients) over a network. Servers are powerful computers that store, process and manage network data.
A server is responsible for collecting and sending information over a computer network. This could be a local network such as your business network or a larger network that spans multiple locations.
A server’s primary purpose is to manage network resources, such as hosting websites and sending data, emailing, or controlling accesses.
54. Shared Hosting
Multiple websites can be hosted on one server with shared hosting. Each website on the server shares resources. Each website gets a small amount of server resource, which is determined by their hosting plan. This is a cost-effective way for small businesses and individuals to establish an online presence. For those just starting out, shared hosting is a popular option.
You can also share server space and server resources with other customers, such as RAM or CPU. This setup results in lower hosting fees and does not require any technical knowledge.
Shared hosting plans are a great option for those who want to start a blog but have little traffic, or simply launching a new website and need help with web hosting.
55. Site Backup
Website backups are snapshots of all the important components of your website. A website backup should contain all the following elements:
- Website code files
- Website databases
- Images and media files
- All add-ons, themes, and plugins that you are using on your website
Regular backups are an essential part of website security. Keeping backup refers to copying and saving data, in the event that original copies become corrupted or lost. You can manually copy your website files to a local computer using an FTP Client. This isn’t always possible and takes a lot of time.
It is important to keep regular backups of your website so that you have a way back to it without having to rebuild the entire thing.
A Sitemap is a file that contains information about your website’s pages, videos, files and relationships. It is a blueprint that describes your website and helps search engines crawl and index all of the website content. Sitemaps are also used to inform search engines about the most important pages on your website.
Main types of sitemaps include:
- HTML Sitemap
- XML Sitemap
- Video Sitemap
- News Sitemap
- Image Sitemap
- Mobile Sitemap
Google will usually find most pages on your site if they are linked properly. Proper linking is the ability to reach all pages you consider important via some form of navigation. This could be your site’s menu, or links you have placed on pages. A sitemap, even though it is not necessary, can help improve crawling of more complicated sites or files.
SMTP (which stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is an email protocol for sending emails via the internet. When an email has been sent, it is transferred to another server using SMTP.
SMTP is a part of the TCP/IP protocol application layer. SMTP transfers your email to and from other networks using a process called store and forward. It communicates with the Mail Transfer Agent, (MTA), to ensure that your message is sent to the correct computer and to the appropriate email inbox.
Email clients can connect to an SMTP server once it is established. The email client creates an SMTP connection with the server when the user clicks “send” to send an email message. The SMTP client uses commands that tell the server what it should do. This includes the sender’s and recipient’s emails addresses, as well as the content of the email. The Mail Transfer Agent checks to make sure that both email addresses come from the same domain. For example, gmail.com. If they are, it immediately sends the email. If not, the server uses Domain Name System (DNS) that helps the server to identify the recipient’s domain to send the email to the correct server.
Softaculous, a popular and free auto app installer program, is integrated with your cPanel hosting service. It allows you to install different PHP classes and scripts with just one click. It is the most popular web hosting application and can be used to install web portals and e-commerce solutions. Softaculous also has a cool feature that allows you to easily take backups of your installations. It can be used within the cPanel control panels or other website control programs such as Plesk, H-Sphere and DirectAdmin.
59. SSL and TLS
SSL stands for Secure Sockets Layer. It is the standard technology to keep an internet connection secure. It also safeguards sensitive data being sent between two systems. This prevents criminals from reading or altering any information, even personal details. TLS is the successor protocol for SSL. TLS is an enhanced version of SSL. It works the same as SSL and uses encryption to secure data transfer. Despite being widely used, the terms are often interchangeable in the industry.
60. SSL Certificate
An SSL certificate is a digital certificate that authenticates the identity of a website and allows for encrypted connections. It is a protocol that web browsers and servers use to ensure that all data between them are kept private. It is accomplished by using an encrypted link between the browser and server.
SSL stands for Secured Socket Layer. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), and its successor TLS (Transport Layer Security), are both methods that protect and encrypt sensitive data such as usernames and passwords, credit cards, and other information sent over the Internet. SSL and TLS-secured website pages are marked with the HTTPS in the URL address. If an SSL Certificate is installed on your website you assure to your potential customers that their personal information is protected and in safe hands, such as their name, address and credit card number etc.
If you don’t want security breaches to occur while you transact business with customers online, it is essential that you have an SSL Certificate installed on your website. SSL certificates are trusted by users because they verify that the websites they use to track finances or make online purchases, and thus create trust.
A subdomain is an extension of your primary domain. It helps you to organize and navigate to different sections on your website. Multiple subdomains and child domains can be created on the main domain.
For example: dev.hosting-guide.com
In the above example “dev” is the subdomain, “hosting-guide” is our primary domain, whereas “.com” is TLD (or top level domain).
A subdomain is most commonly used to create a staging or testing version of a website. Developers often test plugins and update on subdomain staging sites before publishing them online. Subdomains can also be used to identify and separate mobile sites (m.hosting-guide.com), site-specific sites (ca.hosting-guide.com), and create sub-sections (blog.hosting-gui.com).
TLD stands for Top-Level Domain. TLD is the last part of a domain name or the one that follows after the “dot” symbol. TLDs can be divided into two types: country-specific TLDs or generic TLDs.
Most common examples of gTLDs (generic top level domains) are .com, .org, .net etc. For example, in hosting-guide.com domain name “.com” is a generic TLD.
ccTLDs (country code top level domains) end with a country code e.g. .us, .au, .ca etc.
The ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), has the authority to control all TLDs on the Internet and delegate responsibility for these TLDs. VeriSign, an American company, manages all TLDs in the ‘.com/.net’ domains.
This is the time a server has been up and running for. This is typically listed in percentages, such as “99.99%” uptime.
The amount of time your website is offline is called the “downtime”. This can lead to your site losing your ranking, among other things.
A high uptime percentage means that a host’s servers are always up. Any site hosted with them should also be up. A website is not able to keep customers happy if it is down. The site’s performance will be higher if it has high uptime.
It is generally accepted that 99.9% downtime is the industry standard. Five nines or higher (99.999% or more) is the ideal. If server uptime of your website is 99.9%, your webiste will be down for eight hours and 45 minutes plus 57 seconds in a year.
Computer viruses are malicious programs or code that alter the computer’s functionality and can spread to other computers. Computer viruses can cause damage to your computer’s hard drive by deleting files, corrupting programs, and reformatting it.
A website virus is malicious software designed to harm a website and its visitors. Malicious website codes can be used to steal sensitive data, disrupt website availability, redirect website visitors to spam pages, infect the website with malware, or completely hijack the website.
VPS stands for Virtual Private Server. VPS hosting is the best option for hosting your website. Virtualization technology allows you to access dedicated resources on a server.
VPS is different from shared hosting in that it allows less users to share the allocated hard drive space, memory and processor power. VPS is more powerful than shared hosting.
VPS hosting allows multiple virtual servers to be hosted on a single server. The hosting company creates a virtual layer over the operating system (OS), to separate the virtual servers. Each user can install their OS and software on their virtual wall, creating a private server that is separate from the OS level.
66. Web Hosting
Web hosting refers to renting or purchasing space on the World Wide Web to host a website. To be viewable online, website content, such as HTML, CSS and images, must be stored on a server. Although you could theoretically host a server for your website at your home, there are many benefits to using a web hosting provider.
Hosting companies will require you to have a domain before you can host with them. Hosting companies will assist you in purchasing a domain if you don’t have one.
You basically rent space on a server to store all files necessary to run your website. You should find many options for both paid and free hosting services when you begin searching.
67. Windows Server
Windows Server refers to a set of server operating systems developed by Microsoft. It was first released in 2003. It refers any type and configuration of server instances that are installed, managed, and maintained by any of Windows Server operating system families.
Windows Server can generally provide server-oriented services such as hosting a website, user management and resource management across users, applications, messaging and authorization, and other server-oriented services.
WordPress allows you to create websites and publish content online. It was first launched in 2003, and it has grown to be the most widely used website-building platform in the world.
WordPress is used by 42% of all web sites, according to wordpress.com. No other software offers such an easy way to build your blog or website. WordPress is flexible with thousands upon thousands of plugins and support options that will allow your site to grow.
WordPress is versatile CMS that can be used for everything: blogging, e-commerce, portfolio websites and business websites. WordPress is an ideal solution for small and large websites.
You should now be able to understand the technical terms involved in choosing the best web hosting option for your website. You will be able to make an informed decision about the web hosting you require. It can help you avoid being sold features by your hosting provider that you don’t need or want.